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Ebola

In the Democratic Republic of Congo, we are currently responding to the second-worst Ebola outbreak in history

Ebola is one of the world’s deadliest diseases.

It is a highly infectious virus that can kill up to 90 percent of the people who catch it, causing terror among infected communities.

Ebola is so infectious that patients need to be treated in isolation by staff wearing protective clothing.

DRC Ebola outbreak, 2018-19

Map of MSF Ebola activities in northeast DRC

Ebola has now killed more than 1,700 people in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) as the outbreak in the northeast of the country continues.

With more than 2,600 cases, this is the second-worst Ebola outbreak in history – following the 2014 West Africa epidemic. 

On 1 August 2018, we began responding to an outbreak in North Kivu province in the northeast of the country – a region recently characterised by violence and instability – marking the first time that MSF has faced an Ebola outbreak in an active conflict zone. The epidemic has since spread to neighbouring Ituri province, to the north.

On 17 July 2019, the World Health Organisation officially declared the current outbreak "a public health emergency of international concern".

MSF has more than 530 staff deployed in DRC for the Ebola emergency, as of July 2019, and is supporting 745 staff from the Ministry of Health.

August 2019 update: One year into the outbreak, urgent action is needed

One year since the Ebola epidemic in east DRC was declared on 1 August 2018, the outbreak is still not under control.

In July 2019, between 80 and 100 people were diagnosed with the disease each week. Uganda saw its first Ebola patients who had travelled from DRC in June, while Goma, a city of 1.5 million people, recorded its second case.

Violence against healthcare

Insecurity in the region is still a significant challenge for the Ebola response, as northeast DRC has been an area of active conflict for the past quarter-century and is rife with armed groups.

Alongside this, healthcare workers associated with the Ebola response are still not trusted by the community. They have been specifically targeted, sometimes forcing crucial activities such as contact tracing or vaccination campaigns to be suspended, limited or cancelled.

MSF itself was forced to leave Katwa and Butembo in February 2019, after violent attacks on Ebola treatment centres.

Community trust

Currently, an average of six days passes between the onset of the symptoms and the time a patient is admitted into an Ebola treatment or transit centre – a time during which a patient’s condition deteriorates and the virus can infect others.

However, neither the fear induced by this highly lethal, little-understood disease, nor the pre-existing tension in the area can explain the inability of organisations to win the local population’s support. Instead, the overall approach of all involved has to be questioned and improved.

Part of this includes integrating Ebola treatment into existing local healthcare centres, rather than creating a "parallel system" of facilities that are shrouded in mystery and seen by the community as places where people go to die.

MSF was already working in this volatile region long before the current Ebola epidemic – responding to recurring violence, endemic malaria and outbreaks of measles or cholera. However, the massive mobilisation of resources associated with this Ebola response marks a striking contrast to the neglect this region has suffered from over the decades.

This has added to the widespread belief that the priority of many organisations is not in the best interests of the community. 

The Ebola response must urgently adapt to the needs and expectations of the population if we are to gain control of the epidemic. 

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Vital vaccinations

MSF joins the calls of many experts who recommend expanding the use of the current experimental vaccination.

Over 170,000 people have received the vaccine so far through “ring vaccination” – an approach that targets people who have had contact with confirmed Ebola patients, as well as frontline workers.

However, access to the vaccination must be expanded to cover the entire population that is at risk.

Such steps are needed urgently if we are to prevent the epidemic from lasting another year.

Multiple health crises

Worryingly, Ebola is only one of many crises in northeast DRC. In Ituri province, the current epidemic has arrived at the same time as a massive measles outbreak, the seasonal peak in malaria and long-term mass displacement due to violence in the region.

For many people, the main concern is not Ebola, but how to obtain care for their children who are dying of measles and other illnesses, as well as how to find shelter from the unrest.

All these needs, including Ebola, are public health risks that must be responded to.

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West Africa Ebola outbreak, 2014-16

The Ebola outbreak in West Africa killed 11,315 people after being officially declared on 22 March 2014 in Guinea.

During the Ebola emergency, 28 of our staff members caught Ebola. Fourteen recovered but 14 died.

The vast majority of these infections were found to have occurred in the community.

On 22 December 2016, the results of an experimental Ebola vaccine trial were released by the Lancet. The trial found the vaccine to be highly effective in protecting people against the Zaire strain of Ebola.

“This vaccine will be a powerful tool to help prevent the spread of the Zaire strain of Ebola and to protect health workers," said MSF President Dr Bertrand Draguez. 

"MSF will try to make use of it in any future outbreak of the disease. More research is still needed to determine the length of protection that it offers to people and into vaccines for other strains of Ebola. Progress also still needs to be made in improving the treatment of patients once they are infected with Ebola, to make sure more lives can be saved.”

Ebola management: interactive guides

Hover over the image below for an interactive guide to Ebola

Prior to the 2014 outbreak, it is estimated there had been over 1,800 cases of Ebola, with nearly 1,300 deaths.

Ebola history

The Ebola virus was first associated with an outbreak of 318 cases of a haemorrhagic disease in Zaire (now the Democratic Republic of Congo [DRC]) in 1976. Of the 318 cases, 280 died — and died quickly.

That same year, 284 people in Sudan also became infected with the virus, killing 156.

There are five different strains of the Ebola virus: Bundibugyo, Ivory Coast, Reston, Sudan and Zaire, named after their places of origin.

Four of these five have caused disease in humans. While the Reston virus can infect humans, no illnesses or deaths have been reported.

Before the 2014 outbreak, MSF had treated hundreds of people affected by Ebola in UgandaRepublic of Congo, DRC, Sudan, Gabon and Guinea

In 2007, MSF entirely contained an epidemic of Ebola in Uganda by placing a control area around the treatment centre.

What causes Ebola?

Ebola can be caught from both humans and animals. It is transmitted through close contact with blood, secretions, or other bodily fluids.

Healthcare workers have frequently been infected while treating Ebola patients. This has occurred through close contact without the use of gloves, masks or protective goggles.

In areas of Africa, infection has been documented through the handling of infected chimpanzees, gorillas, fruit bats, monkeys, forest antelope and porcupines found dead or ill in the rainforest.

Burials where mourners have direct contact with the deceased can also transmit the virus, whereas transmission through infected semen can occur up to seven weeks after clinical recovery.

Hear more stories from our staff on the MSF podcast, Everyday Emergency

Symptoms of Ebola

Early on, symptoms are non-specific, making it difficult to diagnose.

The disease is often characterised by the sudden onset of fever, feeling weak, muscle pain, headaches and a sore throat. This is followed by vomiting, diarrhoea, rashes, impaired kidney and liver function and, in some cases, internal and external bleeding.

Symptoms can appear from two to 21 days after exposure. Some patients may go on to experience rashes, red eyes, hiccups, chest pains, difficulty breathing and swallowing.

MSF UK doctor Javid Abdelmoneim reflects on his time battling Ebola in Sierra Leone in this powerful and painful TEDxAthens talk 

Diagnosing Ebola

Diagnosing Ebola is difficult because the early symptoms, such as red eyes and rashes, are common.

Ebola infections can only be diagnosed definitively in the laboratory by five different tests.

Such tests are an extreme biohazard risk and should be conducted under maximum biological containment conditions. A number of human-to-human transmissions have occurred due to a lack of protective clothing. 

“Health workers are particularly susceptible to catching it so, along with treating patients, one of our main priorities is training health staff to reduce the risk of them catching the disease whilst caring for patients,” said Henry Gray, MSF’s emergency coordinator, during an Ebola outbreak in Uganda in 2012. Henry also worked on the 2014 outbreak. 

“We have to put in place extremely rigorous safety procedures to ensure that no health workers are exposed to the virus – through contaminated material from patients or medical waste infected with Ebola.”

Treating Ebola

No specific treatment or vaccine is yet available for Ebola.

Standard treatment for Ebola is limited to supportive therapy. This consists of hydrating the patient, maintaining their oxygen status and blood pressure and treating them for any complicating infections.

Despite the difficulty of diagnosing Ebola in its early stages, those who display its symptoms should be isolated and public health professionals notified.

Supportive therapy can continue with proper protective clothing until samples from the patient are tested to confirm infection. Once a patient recovers from Ebola, they are immune to the strain of the virus they contracted.

An Ebola outbreak is officially considered at an end once 42 days have elapsed without any new confirmed cases.

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